Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 18 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 33°S, 32°E - 143°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Maputo, Mozambique (Ref. 4421) and east to the Society and Tuamoto islands, north to the Gotô Islands, Japan (Ref. 559), south to the southern Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4421)
soft rays: 22 - 25. Body brown with up to 12 narrow dark brown crossbars; caudal fin dark brown; soft dorsal, anal and pectoral fins pale; lips dark brown (Ref. 4421). Males with numerous long spines in front of caudal peduncle; females with a toothbrush-like mass of setae (Ref. 1602).
Inhabits clear coastal to outer reefs, usually in rich coral areas with rubble patches or gutters (Ref. 48637). Feeds on coral polyps (Ref. 89972). Solitary or in pairs (Ref. 90102). Less approachable than most filefishes (Ref. 9710). Usually seeks coverage in large corals when approached (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 2642 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00939 - 0.04240), b=2.93 (2.76 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 69.4 [23.8, 152.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.725 [0.428, 1.507] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.0, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.114 [0.053, 0.229] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.8 [14.9, 66.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53 [16, 172] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.83, 2.32] mg/100g (wet weight);