Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 5°S - 7°S, 38°E - 40°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Indian Ocean: known from the type locality, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
A benthic species on inner continental shelf; rarely caught and its life history is unknown. Reports to 205 cm TL are likely to be erroneous. Males mature at ca. 64 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00152 - 0.00600), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .