Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 23°S - 35°S, 12°E - 18°E (Ref. 114953)
Southeast Atlantic: South Africa (Cape Province) to Namibia (where it is common in Walvis Bay). Records from Angola, Senegal and Mauritania are uncertain (Ref. 114953).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6497)
A guitarfish with a broadly pointed snout and a broad pectoral disc (Ref. 5578). Plain brown above, young with white spots (Ref. 5578).
A rare and unknown species found inshore, in shallow bays and off sandy beaches (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Reaches 96 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Stehmann, M., 1990. Rhinobatidae. p. 23-27. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6497)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.2 - 27.9, mean 25.5 °C (based on 265 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00594), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .