Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Acanthopagrus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, pagros, a kind of fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical; 20°N - 37°S, 28°E - 67°E (Ref. 95256)
Western Indian Ocean: from off the Horn of Africa to off Socotra Island of Somalia, including Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Rodriguez.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: 2 conspicuous vertical black bars across the head; dorsal fin with wide black margin, especially distinct in distal spinous part of dorsal fin in fish < ca. 30.36 cm SL, proximal part of dorsal fin yellow; hind margin of caudal fin with narrow black edge in fish to around 30 cm SL, disappearing with growth; 4 scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine and lateral line; third outer molar teeth row extending to rear end of both jaws; basal width of 6 enlarged incisor teeth at front of upper jaw larger, 1.0-1.1 mm for 16 cm SL fish, and 5.0-5.5 mm for 34 cm SL fish; D XI,12-14; A III,10; orbit diameter, noticeably larger in fish > 15 cm SL (Ref. 95256).
Adults inhabit shallow coastal waters, mainly around reefs; also enter estuaries and bays (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Iwatsuki, Y. and P.C. Heemstra, 2011. A review of the Acanthopagrus bifasciatus species complex (Pisces: Sparidae) from the Indian Ocean, with redescription of A. bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) and A. catenula (Lacepède 1801). Zootaxa 3025:38-50. (Ref. 95256)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.00886 - 0.04705), b=2.96 (2.78 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .