Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 43 m (Ref. 89891). Subtropical; 37°N - 26°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Texas in USA, but absent from southern Florida.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 35 cm
Max length : 83.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275); max. published weight: 9.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 46275)
A cryptic species that tolerates low salinities; occurs frequently in brackish bays and estuaries, even on occasion in fresh water (Ref. 9988). Adults are found mostly over mud bottoms in estuaries and coastal waters to about 40 m depth. Taken by anglers inshore from bridges, jetties and small boats. They move to deeper water in winter, but are still easily accessible (Ref. 9988). Adults feed chiefly on fishes, also on crabs and shrimps. Juveniles take mainly small bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 24.9, mean 23.9 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00382 - 0.00951), b=3.19 (3.06 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21-0.23; tmax=8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 76.9 [35.3, 172.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.26 [0.68, 2.22] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.6 [13.1, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.43 [0.19, 0.92] g/100g ; Selenium = 34 [15, 84] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.7 [1.6, 27.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.77 [0.48, 1.20] mg/100g (wet weight);