Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 19 - 130 m (Ref. 26938). Subtropical; 37°N - 20°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida, USA, northern Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean to Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 71.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occurs in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Inhabits mainly hard and sandy bottoms (Ref. 3275).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.1 - 27.5, mean 24.2 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00318 - 0.01574), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 60.4 [29.7, 143.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.999 [0.589, 1.824] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.268 [0.144, 0.478] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.5 [15.5, 73.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [3, 59] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.475 [0.306, 0.730] mg/100g (wet weight);