Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Cyclopsetta: Greek, kyklos = round + Greek, psetta = grouper (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 30°N - 26°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: northwestern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275); max. published weight: 76.00 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 63 - 69. Body is oval, moderately elongate. Dorsal fin originates distinctly anterior to a vertical at front of the eyes. Eyes on left side, not large, their diameter is 5 - 5.9 times the head length. The interorbital space is narrow, less than half the eye diameter. Lateral line on eyed side is not steeply arched above pectoral fin. The mouth is large extending slightly beyond the posterior margin of the eyes. Caudal fin is rounded. Color is brown with a large blotch beneath pectoral fin. The dorsal and anal fins have a row of dark spots containing pale areas,. Two spots on the dorsal and a few on the anal are large. The caudal fin has three large dark spots at the posterior border, none on center of the fin. Number of ovaries: 2. Ovaries are symmetrical, lie parallel with each other, depressed cross-sectionally and extra-visceral in location (Ref. 101557).
Occurs in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters. Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 5217). Marketed fresh (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Number of ovaries: 2. Ovaries are symmetrical, lie parallel with each other, depressed cross-sectionally and extra-visceral in location (Ref. 101557).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.6 - 27.4, mean 24.8 °C (based on 192 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00401 - 0.01893), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.78).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).