Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Batrachoidiformes
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae
(Toadfishes) > Thalassophryninae
Etymology: Thalassophryne: Greek, thalassa = the sea + Greek , phryne = toad (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Western Central Atlantic: northern coast of South America. The junior synonym, Batrachus uranoscopus, found listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [as Vulnerable B1ab (I,iii) + 2ab (I,iii), based on a 2001assessment] is thus not justified (Ref. 81293).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3273)
Inhabits the sandy bottoms of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Partially buried in mud or sand. Wounds from the venomous spines have caused severe pain and illness that persisted as long as one week (Ref. 13442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1966. A review of the venomous toadfishes, subfamily Thalassophryninae. Copeia 1966(4):846-864. (Ref. 30721)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 27.6, mean 26.1 °C (based on 121 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00441 - 0.02989), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .