Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 13608). Tropical; 12°N - 13°S, 82°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Panama to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 23 - 25;
Vertebrae: 36 - 38. Head depressed, trunk compressed; molariform teeth on both jaws; no venomous gland on any spine; body brownish dorsally with black diffuse mottlings, pale ventrally; lateral line pores distinct with white spots; fin membranes black distally (Ref. 13608).
Inhabits littoral (subtidal) waters; usually found on sandy or rock bottom; large fish may be found in waters less than 1 m of depth hiding in crevices or caves (Ref. 3273). Feeds mostly on molluscs and crustaceans. Reported to be moderately abundant and regularly consumed by fishermen (Ref. 50841). Eggs are deposited on the shells of mollusks and on stones. One of the very few marine fishes that guards fry and juveniles. It is caught in traps and special types of hooks (garrapinos) (Ref. 50841). Marketed fresh.
One of the few marine fishes that provide posthatching care. Males actively guard free-swimming juveniles in burrows (Ref. 13442, 101618). Males may mate more than once a year (Ref. 101618).
Collette, B.B., 1978. Batrachoididae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3273)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 28, mean 27.5 °C (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .