Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 25. Tropical; 21°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060); 35°N - 4°N
Africa: basins of the Nile (Ref. 3202), Niger (including the Benue), Volta and Chad (Ref. 57223).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; eye large, at least 24% of head length and 33% of head width; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels slightly longer than head, unbranched, without tubercles but with a light, well visible, broad basal membrane; outer mandibular barbels with numerous, tuberculate ramifications; mandibular teeth long, numbering 16-24 (20 in the holotype); dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly; denticulations of pectoral-fin spines finer on outer than on inner margin; first branched dorsal-fin ray prolonged into a very long filament that may reach to caudal-fin base; humeral process poorly developed, granulose, rounded posteriorly and very slightly keeled, at least on anterior part of ventral margin; adipose fin truncate posteriorly and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin; outer margins of caudal-fin lobes black-edged; body covered with large spots (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: back brownish, sides yellowish, belly lighter; body covered with black spots, except on belly; dorsal filament as well as outer rays of caudal-fin lobes black; young individuals nearly same colour pattern as adults (Ref. 57223).
Maximum SL was recorded at 22.3 cm, max. TL at 27.5 cm (Ref. 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00522 - 0.02005), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .