Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Atrobucca: Latin, atro = black + Latin, bucca = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Thompson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 45 - 200 m (Ref. 9772), usually ? - 120 m (Ref. 7483). Deep-water; 38°N - 31°S, 30°E - 137°E
Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique and Natal, South Africa (Ref. 12484), India (Ref. 4373); China, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, and off northern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 7. A small, moderately-deep-bodied species. Swim bladder carrot-shaped, with 24 to 30 pairs of branched appendages, each with a dorsal and a ventral limb, regularly arranged so that the twiglets of the dorsal limb point backwards, and those near the tip of the ventral limb point forwards. The lateral line scales reaching the tip of the caudal fin. The linings of the mouth, gill chamber and body cavity black.
Found in coastal waters down to a depth of 200 m or deeper (Ref. 9772), on seaweed beds and gravel (Ref. 11230). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sasaki, K. and P.J. Kailola, 1988. Three new Indo-Australian species of the sciaenid genus Atrobucca, with a reevaluation of generic limit. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 35(3):261-277. (Ref. 7483)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.2 - 27.9, mean 24.5 °C (based on 609 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00509 - 0.01424), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.69 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.8 (3.1 - 7.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.7 [11.9, 48.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.279 [0.155, 0.527] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.4, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.344 [0.178, 0.605] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.6 [8.9, 43.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.2 [3.8, 69.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.42 [0.28, 0.66] mg/100g (wet weight);