Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Platyrhinidae
Etymology: Platyrhina: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, rhinos = nose. It is the same voice used for the Mammalian division made in Primates (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 15°N, 105°E - 120°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: Chinese coast of Taiwan Strait and in the South China Sea to northern Vietnamese waters; not confirmed from Japanese, South Korean or Taiwanese waters (likely to occur in Taiwan).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9903); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 637)
This species is distinguished from its congeners in having the following set of characters: two rows of thorns (strongly hooked and gradually becoming somewhat embedded toward first dorsal fin origin) on mid-dorsum of tail; no thorns at the anterior part of scapular region; thorns on the orbital, nape and scapular regions not encircled by light yellow or white pigment; dorsal surface covered with minute dermal denticles of uniform size and shape, no obvious larger dermal denticles (smooth to touch) (Ref. 86259).
Found inshore (Ref. 9903), above 60 m on rock or rocky sand bottoms (Ref. 11230). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Biology little known (Ref. 9903).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Platyrhinidae. Thornback rays. p. 1431-1432. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 9903)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 26.7, mean 25.2 °C (based on 112 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .