Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 1000 m (Ref. 5377), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Guinea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6534)
Found on the continental shelf on muddy substrates. Feeds on small annelids, bivalves and crustaceans (Ref. 6721).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G., 1990. Heterenchelyidae. p. 153-155. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6534)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 15.9, mean 13.3 °C (based on 53 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5664 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .