Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 85 - 200 m (Ref. 4450), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Atlantic: Madeira and Benin. Western Atlantic: Bermuda and the West Indies. North Carolina, USA (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4450)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Large, blunt snout, head dusky, prominent white margins on fins (Ref. 26938).
Occurs on shelf, rocks and deep coral zones (Ref. 3256).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G. and E.B. Böhlke, 1990. Muraenidae. p. 136-148. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4450)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.8 - 23.8, mean 18.6 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00069 (0.00042 - 0.00114), b=3.30 (3.16 - 3.44), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 91.5 [56.1, 169.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.557 [0.289, 0.958] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.9, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.214 [0.094, 0.584] g/100g ; Selenium = 91.7 [49.0, 189.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.7 [5.0, 55.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.823 [0.582, 1.177] mg/100g (wet weight);