Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Scomberesocidae
Etymology: Scomberesox: Latin, scomber = mackerel + Esox, the old name for "pike" (Ref. 45335); scombroides: From manuscript on Esox scombroides, Solander, 1772..
More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: generally circumglobal in temperate waters of the southern hemisphere. More common between 30°-40°S, but more northerly to 15°S near Africa and to near equator off Ecuador along South American west coast (particularly the young and juveniles). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.7, range 23 - 25 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6531)
Morphology | Morphometrics
An epipelagic, gregarious species. Occurs in surface waters of the open sea; occasionally enters bays and inlets (Ref. 9563). Flesh is highly esteemed (Ref. 6617) but large schools are too sporadic to be of commercial importance (Ref. 6531). Feeds on small planktonic organisms, preyed upon by yellowfin tuna, Cape gunnets, marine mammals. Migrates from spawning areas to cool temperate and plankton-rich waters (Ref. 36731).
Wisner, R.L., 1990. Scomberesocidae. p. 598-603. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6531)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.2 - 21.3, mean 18.2 °C (based on 1430 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6562 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).