Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 40 - 100 m (Ref. 43239). Tropical; 46°N - 36°S, 21°E - 164°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Southeast Asia, north to Japan and south to northern Australia (Ref. 28). Eastern Atlantic: St. Helena and south coasts of Africa (Ref. 7348).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9770)
soft rays: 24 - 26. Scales enlarged above the pectoral fin base and just behind the gill slit to form a flexible tympanum; scales of posterior body with prominent keels, forming longitudinal ridges. A prominent groove in the skin extending anteriorly from front of eye for a distance of about 1 eye diameter. Caudal peduncle depressed. Caudal fin rays of adults prolonged above and below.
Inhabit coastal areas, usually found over muddy and sandy bottoms, also around reefs, together with the sponges and algae (Ref. 5213). Feed on benthic animals (Ref. 9769). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also caught with vertical long-lines (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Matsuura, K., 2001. Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.3, mean 27.1 °C (based on 501 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01704 - 0.04060), b=2.87 (2.74 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .