Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 400 m (Ref. 4426). Subtropical; 38°N - 17°N
Eastern Atlantic: Tunisia and coast of Mauritania. Raja africana Capapé, 1977 is a homonym, being preoccupied by Raja africana Bloch & Schneider, 1801(Ref. 26282) and thus needs a replacement name. Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4426)
Found in shelf and slope waters, depending on seasonal lower bottom water temperatures. Feeds on crustaceans and bony fishes (Ref. 3167). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.5 - 17.4, mean 15.1 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00131 - 0.00635), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 18.9 [3.2, 62.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.559 [0.173, 1.616] mg/100g ; Protein = 21 [18, 24] % ; Omega3 = 0.205 [0.063, 0.576] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.8 [7.4, 103.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.5 [11.8, 119.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.978 [0.461, 2.463] mg/100g (wet weight);