Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Siluridae
Etymology: Silurus: Greek, silouros = a cat fish + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate
Asia: Endemic to Lake Biwa, Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 118 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 17.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Largest species among the Japanese silurid fishes (Ref. 37518).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Based on observations, a female first searches for a spawning site, with a male following behind. Immediately the female stops, the male first places his head under that of the female and then, by bending his body towards her anal fin, positions himself such that his tail is towards the end of the female's snout. From this position, the male then begins to wrap his tail around the head of the female, gradually winding his body tighter and moving along the body of the female until positioned at the center of her body. The male then winds his body tightly around the dorsal side of the female's abdomen for 20-30 seconds. The female then shakes her head from side to side several times, and orientates her body downward. This behavior causes the male to become separated from the female. Immediately after separation, the female releases a large number of eggs, and circles around with the male following on the inside. Although gamete release by the male was not actually observed, it seems likely that the eggs are fertilized during circling. After circling, the pair turns round twice violently, causing the eggs to become widely scattered. The pair then swim away with the female in the lead.
Kobayakawa, M., 1989. Systematic revision of the catfish genus Silurus, with description of a new species from Thailand and Burma. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 36(2):155-186. (Ref. 9417)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00298 - 0.01164), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100).