Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Enteromius: Greek, enteron = intestine + Greek, myo, mys = muscle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Weber.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 5°C - 22°C; 23°S - 33°S
Africa: Widely distributed from Limpopo to upland Natal, Transkei and the middle and upper Orange basin, including the Karoo. Absent from the lower Orange. Present in the coastal rivers of the Cape (Olifants, Gourits, Gamtoos, Sundays and Great Fish) but absent from Cape Fold Mt. streams.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); 12.0 cm SL (female); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 7248)
Favors cooler waters. Occurs in small groups and shoals, in various habitats from small streams to large rivers and lakes. Frequently associates with cover or shelter such as fallen logs, brushwood or marginal vegetation. Feeds on insects, zooplankton, seeds, green algae and diatoms. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during summer when rivers are swollen after rain and lays adhesive eggs amongst vegetation. Is preyed upon by larger fishes and birds (Ref. 7248 & 5214).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00633 - 0.01990), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; tmax=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .