Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 9 - 64 m (Ref. 50072), usually 9 - ? m (Ref. 55176). Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 100°W - 33°W (Ref. 55176)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil and Uruguay (Ref. 58839), including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 115.0, range 103 - 137 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); max. published weight: 18.9 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 56138)
Found on continental and insular shelves, mainly over sandy, shell, and coral bottoms. Feeds on small fishes, including pinfish (Sparidae) and porcupine fish. Preyed on by larger sharks. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 3 to 6 young per litter. Performs a 'hunch' display, with back arched, caudal lowered and head raised, as a possible threat display when confronted by divers. Utilized dried salted for human consumption. Minimum depth from Ref. 055176.
Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 3 to 6 young per litter (Ref. 244). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.2 - 28, mean 25.5 °C (based on 520 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00219 - 0.01045), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12; tm=3; tmax=15; Fec=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .