Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 800 m (Ref. 57942), usually 20 - 610 m (Ref. 50610). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: central Japan northward, southern Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bo Hai and East China Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9137, 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.8 - 21.9, mean 8.6 °C (based on 1055 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00690 - 0.02192), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 13.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .