Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 400 m (Ref. 27000), usually 20 - 63 m (Ref. 244). Subtropical; 64°N - 12°N, 18°W - 36°E
Northeast Atlantic: Shetlands (rare), southern Scandinavia and British Isles to Morocco, including the Mediterranean. Distribution southward of this range is uncertain.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 77 - 79 cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); common length : 125 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 72467)
soft rays: 0. A large, fairly stocky, catshark with large and small black spots and sometimes white spots covering dorsal surface, saddle markings obsolete, small anterior nasal flaps that do not reach the mouth, no nasoral grooves, labial furrows on lower jaw only, second dorsal fin much smaller than first (Ref. 244)
A common inshore and offshore shark found on the continental shelf over rough, even rocky or coralline ground, and algal-covered bottoms. Found at depths of 1 or 2 m to at least 125 m. Feed on bottom-living invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans and on demersal fishes (e.g. sharks, S. canicula). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and processed into fishmeal. May attain 170 cm (Ref. 27000).
Oviparous, with a single egg per oviduct (Ref. 244). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Size at hatching about 16 cm (Ref. 244).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.8 - 19.5, mean 10.9 °C (based on 836 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00171 - 0.00643), b=3.14 (2.96 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .