Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polynemus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek,nema = filament (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 25 m (Ref. 31582). Tropical; 24°N - 11°N, 71°E - 102°E (Ref. 57343)
Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: west coast of India to Thailand. Probably occurs in Malaysia (Ref. 5756) and Laos (Ref. 9497).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 94495); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479)
Lives over sandy bottoms, regularly entering freshwaters during breeding season. Feeds mainly on crustaceans (especially shrimps), small fishes and benthic organisms. Marketed fresh (Ref. 3479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., S.O. Kullander, T. Yoshino and Y. Iwatsuki, 2002. Review of seven-spined Polynemus species (Perciformes: Polynemidae) with designation of a neotype for Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus, 1758. Ichthyol. Res. 49(4):307-317. (Ref. 31582)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.5 - 28.9, mean 28.4 °C (based on 157 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00296 - 0.00850), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).