Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Etelinae
Etymology: Aphareus: Greek, aphareys, -eos = water wings under the belly of female tunna (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 100 - 330 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 35°N - 35°S, 24°E - 150°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Australia. Southeast Atlantic: Port Alfred, South Africa (Ref. 11228).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5484); common length : 79.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 4887)
soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and laterally compressed; lower jaw protruding; premaxillae not protrusible, fixed by a frenum; teeth in jaws are extremely small, minute in large adults; roof of mouth toothless; maxilla without scales or longitudinal ridges; interorbital region flattened; gill openings extending far anterior to orbit; gill rakers on first gill arch 16 - 19 + 32-35 = 49-52; last soft ray of both dorsal and anal fins well produced, longer than next to last ray; caudal fin forked; D X,11 (occasionally 10); membranes of dorsal and anal fins without scales; tubed lateral-line scales 69-75. Colour of body blue-grey or mauve to overall reddish; margin of maxilla black; in some specimens, at least, inside of mouth, gill chamber, and gills shining silver; fins yellowish to reddish except pelvic and anal fins sometimes whitish (Ref. 9821).
Adults inhabit reefs and rocky bottom areas to depths of at least 100 m (Ref. 4887). Found in pelagic and benthopelagic waters (Ref. 58302). They feed on fishes, squids and crustaceans (Ref. 4887). Marketed fresh (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.1 - 23.3, mean 18.4 °C (based on 229 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.01199 - 0.01911), b=2.94 (2.88 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.7 [11.9, 39.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.47 [0.29, 0.76] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.3, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.092, 0.212] g/100g ; Selenium = 48.8 [27.3, 79.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 84.9 [32.1, 242.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.737 [0.475, 1.062] mg/100g (wet weight);