Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 174 - 278 m (Ref. 10482). Tropical; 41°N - 28°S, 97°E - 143°W
Western Pacific: southern Japan to Micronesia and the Hawaiian Islands. Reported from Malaysia (Ref. 5756) and from Bali Strait to Timor Sea in Indonesia (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10482)
soft rays: 5. Pectoral rays unbranched in adults; with about 45-60 vertical scale rows; lachrymal bone with 2 spines over maxillary, first points out and back, second points mostly back; suborbital ridge with 3 or 4 spines; second preopercular spine usually absent in large specimens; color in life mostly red (Ref. 10482).
An upper slope species (Ref. 10482). Benthic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.9 - 21.1, mean 16.3 °C (based on 59 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00609 - 0.02604), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .