Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 121 m (Ref. 9281). Subtropical
Western Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755) and the Mangaréva and Gambier Islands (Ref. 9281). Eastern Pacific: Bahía Magdalena (Baja California Sur, Mexico) and the Gulf of California to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9281).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.1, range 27 - 34 cm
Max length : 15.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41284); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body flat and strongly compressed; eyes on the left side of the head; lateral line on the eyes side with a pronounced arch over the pectoral fin but not extending under the lower eye; urinary papilla present on the eyed side; anterior profile of head only slightly notched; eyed side dark brown to olive green, without any conspicuous spots (Ref. 55763).
Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 9281). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9281).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A., 1995. Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 28.8, mean 24 °C (based on 144 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00396 - 0.02008), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .