Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 8 - 250 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Western Pacific: southern Japan, South China Sea, Philippines, northwest shelf of Australia through Timor and Arafura seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 11 - 12. A short, branched supra ocular cirrus present. Infraorbital ridge entirely serrated over eye. Preopercular spines 3-5, not noticeably slanting towards mid-line; no smooth notch under eye. Antorbital margin with 3 antrorse spines. Lower side of head unicarinate. Lateral line scales frequently 37 or 38, anterior 7 to 27 scales bearing a small spine or ridge. Iris lappet bearing numerous short branches with bifurcate tips. Upper surface of eye with a short, branched cirrus.
Occurs inshore (Ref. 7300); taken by trawling over sand and mud bottoms to 250 m (Ref. 9790). Nocturnal, buried in the substrate during the day (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sainsbury, K.J., P.J. Kailola and G.G. Leyland, 1985. Continental shelf fishes of the northern and north-western Australia. An illustrated guide. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research; Clouston & Hall and Peter Pownall Fisheries Information Service, Canberra, Australia. 375 p. (Ref. 3131)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.4 - 28.1, mean 25.8 °C (based on 757 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00326 - 0.01016), b=2.95 (2.79 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .