Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Toxotidae
Etymology: Toxotes: Greek, toxotes = bowman (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 25°C - 30°C (Ref. 1672)
Asia and Oceania: Sri Lanka and India to New Guinea and northern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847); max. published weight: 750.00 g (Ref. 6028)
Occurs mainly in brackish mangrove estuaries, but also penetrates freshwater rivers and small streams (Ref. 4833, 44894). Inhabits coastal waters (Ref. 45255). Found along the shores of flowing and standing waters. Occurs in shaded areas with overhanging vegetation (Ref. 12693, 44894). Inhabits medium to large-sized rivers (Ref. 12975). Also found in lakes and billabongs (Ref. 44894). Feeds at the surface during the day on floating debris which includes insects and vegetable matter (Ref. 2847). Also consumes crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 44894). Renowned for its habit of spitting to dislodge its insect prey from tree branches above the water; maximum shooting range is about 150 cm. Breeds from both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 2847, 44894). Breeding takes place in the wet season. Highly fecund female releases buoyant eggs (Ref. 44894). Lays 20,000 to 150,000 eggs, measuring about 0.4 mm in diameter (Ref. 6028). Occasionally caught by anglers and is reasonable eating (Ref. 44894). Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00620 - 0.04241), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-2; k=0.31).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .