Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 250 - 435 m (Ref. 33352), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: South Africa to northwestern Australia; northward to South China Sea (Ref. 33352). Southeast Atlantic: southeast coast of South Africa (Ref. 4919). Mediterranean (Lessepsian migrant) (Ref. 96612).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4919)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Leis, J.M., 1986. Diodontidae. p. 903-907. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4423)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9 - 16.8, mean 12 °C (based on 156 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01114 - 0.05408), b=2.89 (2.71 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .