Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 55 - 1873 m (Ref. 55744), usually 150 - 1200 m (Ref. 35388). Deep-water; 64°N - 14°N, 19°W - 36°E
Northeast Atlantic: Faeroe Islands and Trondheim, Norway southward to Senegal. Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 64.7, range 56 - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); 90.0 cm TL (female); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. ); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Depth range is reported at 55m-1200m in Ref. 9996. Found on the outer continental shelves and upper slopes. Feeds mainly on bottom invertebrates, including shrimps and cephalopods, but also on small pelagic bony fishes (lanternfishes) and other small elasmobranchs. Oviparous, with up to 13 eggs present in the oviducts at one time. Individuals from the Ionian Sea apparently reproduces from end of February to September and eggs are laid between 200 and 600 meters (Ref. 87978). Utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption, and for leather.
Oviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.4 - 14.4, mean 10.3 °C (based on 708 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00224 - 0.00339), b=3.01 (2.95 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .