Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Monacanthus: Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Malaysia and Indonesia to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia and New South Wales.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3132); max. published weight: 580.00 g (Ref. 3132)
Inhabits estuaries and on coastal and offshore reefs (Ref. 9563); also on weed bottoms and on trawling grounds. Found on muddy or silty substrates (Ref. 48637). Is an omnivore which feeds mainly on seagrass, algae, gammarid amphipods and caridean shrimps as well as on bryozoans, hydroids, ascidians, copepods, caprellid amphipods and tanaidaceans (Ref. 13426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Shen, S.C. (ed.), 1993. Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei. 960 p. (Ref. 5193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 898 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01556 - 0.03872), b=2.82 (2.68 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41 [14, 89] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.606 [0.360, 1.298] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.9, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.0964 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.1 [16.5, 78.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 36.3 [9.5, 128.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.26 [0.73, 2.11] mg/100g (wet weight);