Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 43448). Tropical; 30°N - 26°S
Indo-West Pacific: northern Indian Ocean and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. A lessepsian migrant, now prevalent in the Mediterranean (Ref. 43448).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3132)
Adults inhabit coastal waters, entering brackish estuaries (Ref. 3132) and mangrove areas (Ref. 7300). Also in fresh waters (Ref. 30573). Feed on fishes and invertebrates. Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3744 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00176 - 0.01190), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .