Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Day.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: southern Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4055) to southern India and Sri Lanka. One specimen is known from the Philippines. Also reported from Indonesia and northwestern Australia (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3520)
soft rays: 9 - 11. Body dusky pink above, with pale blue-grey blotches and stripes; 2 black streaks at upper edge of operculum; caudal fin yellow in color; some with dark blotches along lateral line (Ref. 11228).
Found on current-prone (Ref. 48635) sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 11228), usually in depths of 20 m or more. Usually buries itself in the sand (Ref. 48635). Sold fresh and dried salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cressey, R.F. and R.S. Waples, 1984. Synodontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3520)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 28.3, mean 27.2 °C (based on 503 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00217 - 0.00962), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 63.8 [23.4, 144.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.626 [0.277, 1.204] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.9 [13.0, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.0889 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.5 [16.2, 80.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 92.7 [23.0, 319.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.956 [0.494, 1.481] mg/100g (wet weight);