Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 25 m (Ref. 48637). Tropical; 31°N - 31°S, 31°E - 169°W
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef. The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena obtusata (Ref. 9768). Mediterranean: Lessepsian migrant (Ref. 50345).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768)
soft rays: 9. Body with two brown or brownish yellow longitudinal stripes which may disappear in old specimens; caudal fin yellowish (Ref. 9768). S. flavicauda is more elongate than S. obtusata and differs in dorsal fin height pectoral fin length (Ref. 37816).
Inhabits lagoon and sheltered seaward reefs (Ref. 9710); also found in bays (Ref. 9768). Often schools on coastal reefs (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3668 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00510 - 0.01181), b=2.89 (2.77 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.7 [11.5, 60.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.376 [0.183, 1.366] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [18.5, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.0982 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.4 [16.8, 93.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.2 [5.7, 130.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.635 [0.387, 1.141] mg/100g (wet weight);