Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthodidae
Etymology: Paralichthodes: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 6270), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Western Indian Ocean and Southeast Atlantic: known only from Delagoa Bay, Mozambique to Mossel Bay, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6270)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 9665).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Pleuronectidae. p. 863-865. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smith's sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 6270)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 24.8, mean 22.2 °C (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .