Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 122 m (Ref. 3921), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: known only from Hawaii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3921)
soft rays: 6 - 8. Pectoral rays all unbranched, very long and free from membrane distally; dorsal spines very long, some about as long as body depth. Ctenoid scales with about 50-55 vertical scale rows; coronal spines present; most head spines become multiple with growth. Lachrymal and suborbital bones densely covered with spines for specimen 10 cm SL. Supraocular tentacles banded with black, frequently tentacles absent in large specimens. Small specimens with fewer bars on pectoral and pelvic fins.
Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Generally hidden beneath ledges or caves during the day; a nocturnal feeder on crustaceans (Ref. 3921).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1985. Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.6 - 25, mean 20.3 °C (based on 2 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00444 - 0.02358), b=3.01 (2.81 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .