Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope east and north to False Bay, Natal and St. Lucia coast of North Zululand; to Lake Piti in southern Mozambique (Ref. 4164).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4164)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 5213). Enters freshwater (Ref. 6798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1986. Hemiramphidae. p. 163-164. In J. Daget, J.P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.9 - 26.3, mean 24.9 °C (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00110 - 0.00524), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .