Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and Kenya and India to Port Alfred, South Africa. Reported from Indonesia (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2799); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 9710)
A relatively rare species (Ref. 9710) found in coastal areas near reefs (Ref. 30573). Juveniles in shallow weedy areas. Omnivorous (Ref. 2799). Good to eat.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Smith, M.M. and R.J. McKay, 1986. Haemulidae. p. 564-571. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2799)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 830 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00835 - 0.04555), b=2.95 (2.75 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.7 [15.2, 50.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.426 [0.241, 0.837] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.3, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.113 [0.059, 0.190] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.3 [19.5, 67.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50 [16, 148] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.837 [0.480, 1.285] mg/100g (wet weight);