Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Diploprioninae
Etymology: Aulacocephalus: Greek, aulos = flute + Greek, kephales = head (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488). Tropical; 20°N - 36°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 4326) to Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. One specimen from Rapa (Ref. 4326).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Inhabits caves and crevices in rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Skin contains grammistin which imparts a bitter taste. The amount of toxin produced increases when the fish is frightened (Ref. 4326). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 09710.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1986. Grammistidae. p. 537-538. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4326)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4326)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.9 - 28, mean 24 °C (based on 739 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.7 [28.5, 87.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.509 [0.300, 0.824] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.8, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.103, 0.230] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.8 [22.2, 65.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 97.3 [34.2, 287.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.75, 1.60] mg/100g (wet weight);