Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Gempylidae
Etymology: Thyrsitoides: Greek, thyrsites, -ou = stalk of a plant, an ornament like a pine cone borne by Bacchus + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Fowler.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - 400 m (Ref. 6181), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 39°N - 44°S, 25°E - 134°W (Ref. 6181)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and New Caledonia, north to Japan. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4408); common length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9784)
(total): 17 - 19;
soft rays: 16 - 17;
Vertebrae: 34. Two lateral lines, originating above the upper angle of gill opening, branching below the 4th dorsal-fin spine or slightly behind it, upper line running along the first dorsal-fin base and ending below about the end of the first dorsal fin, lower line abruptly curved backward from bifurcation, running mid laterally to the base of the middle caudal-fin ray. Body color is dark brown with slightly metallic reflections, sometimes slightly paler on belly. Dorsal fin membranes with black markings.
Mesobenthopelagic, down to depths of 400 m or more, often at the surface at night around Okinawa, Japan (Ref. 6181). The largest populations are probably on the slope of seamounts or ridges (Ref. 6181). Feeds on a variety of mesopelagic fish, squid and crustaceans (Ref. 6181).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes,. scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p. (Ref. 6181)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 28, mean 23.7 °C (based on 1045 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00203 - 0.00894), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .