Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Cheilopogon: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, pogon = barbed, beard (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical; 40°N - 30°S
Indo-West Pacific: in tropical waters, south to the Mascarenes, Aldabra, and Natal, South Africa (Ref. 33390) and east to Japan, the Caroline and Solomon islands. Western Atlantic: 40°N to off Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea and adjacent waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3613)
soft rays: 8 - 11. Body dark iridescent blue above, silvery white below; pectorals black with pale margin, central portion crossed by a yellowish stripe becoming narrower toward anterior fin margin; pelvic fins with prominent black spot (Ref. 6797). Body of juveniles with dark bars (Ref. 6797).
Inhabits surface waters of the open ocean, capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface (Ref. 3395). Planktivore (Ref. 97629).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V. and R.H. Gibbs Jr., 1990. Exocoetidae. p. 583-591. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4498)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 1460 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00160 - 0.01085), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.08 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K>1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .