Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 90 - 540 m (Ref. 9904). Deep-water
Western Pacific: Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, and the Philippines.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Found in continental shelves and upper slopes (Ref. 9904, 11230); shelf edge, 60-550 m (Ref. 11230). Feeds mainly on small benthic animals (Ref. 637). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs are encased in horny shells (Ref. 205). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Caught with bottom trawls but utilization uncertain except as fish balls (kamaboko) in Japan (Ref. 9904).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De la Paz, R.M. and R. Interior, 1979. Deep-sea fishes off Lubang Island, Philippines. Nat. Applied Sci. Bull. 31(3-4):175 p. (Ref. 5282)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.4 - 21.7, mean 15.9 °C (based on 203 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00126 - 0.00755), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming Fec <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .