Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hemiramphus: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, rhamphos = bill, peak (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Lay & Bennett.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 1 m (Ref. 58302), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Pacific Ocean: in the tropical and subtropical waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980)
Feeds on small fishes, zooplanktons and organic detritus (Ref. 89972).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tinker, S.W., 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p. (Ref. 583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00369 - 0.01296), b=3.25 (3.09 - 3.41), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 196 [83, 525] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.94 [1.03, 3.50] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.357 [0.170, 0.891] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.9 [11.9, 61.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [2.7, 46.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.75, 2.02] mg/100g (wet weight);