Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippichthys: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; dH range: 20 - 30; amphidromous (Ref. 59012); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 33°N - 15°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Sri Lanka and Samoa (Ref. 4127). Recorded upstream in freshwater of the Mekong, but this record may represent another species of this genus or another genus among the 15 genera of pipefishes expected in Mekong estuary and plume (Ref. 12693).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693)
(total): 25-30. Brownish, mottled or with prominent dark bars crossing lower half of side and venter of trunk; bars absent or obscured by dark ground color in some adults; dorsal rays without rows of distinct brown spots (Ref. 4281).
Adults occur in shallow coastal and estuarine waters, sometimes among mangroves. Also found regularly in freshwater in the lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 4967, 44894) and tidal creeks (Ref. 44894). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Males maybe brooding at about 9.8 SL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 2181 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00045 (0.00019 - 0.00102), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .