Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Oxudercidae
(Mudskippers) > Periophthalminae
Etymology: Periophthalmus: Greek, peri = around + Greek, ophthalmos = eye (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: southern Red Sea to South Africa, east to the Marianas and Samoa; north to Ryukyu Islands, south to western Australia and Oceania.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4756)
(total): 12 - 17;
soft rays: 8 - 11. Distinguished by the following characteristics: pelvic fins lacking frenum; little or no membrane uniting medial most pelvic rays; Dl height moderate, its margin usually convex, occasionally straight, with a black stripe inframarginally and numerous small, white spots posteriorly on fin, no elongate spines; D2 with single, dusky stripe mesially; dorsal fins not connected by
membrane; Dl with 11-16 spines; longitudinal scale count 64-100; head width 14.3-22.6% SL; pelvic fin length 11.3-15.2% SL; length of anal fin base 14.0-19.4% SL; length ofD2 base 17.6-23.7% SL; total D2 elements 10-13 total anal fin elements 9-12; TRDB 18-26 (Ref. 5218).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); A resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612, 48637) and amphibious air-breather (Ref. 31184, 79840) found in brackish mud flats in mangrove and nipa palm areas. Occasionally in the lower parts of freshwater streams (Ref. 2847, 44894, 48637, 79840). Actively shuttling back and forth between rock pools and air (Ref. 31184). Feed on worms, crustaceans, and insects (Ref. 37816). Can stay out of the water for up to 37 h if kept moist (Ref. 51276).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Murdy, E.O., 1989. A taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the oxudercine gobies (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae). Rec. Aust. Mus., Suppl. 11:1-93. (Ref. 5218)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2897 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00514 - 0.02340), b=2.97 (2.79 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.7 [46.0, 189.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.866 [0.483, 1.612] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [15.7, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.289 [0.125, 0.646] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.1 [12.4, 62.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 109 [27, 384] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.96 [1.19, 3.14] mg/100g (wet weight);