Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 35 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 28°N - 18°S
Indo-Pacific: Chagos Islands to the Hawaiian, Marquesas, and Society Islands. Also reported from Australia (Ref. 2334) and New Caledonia (Ref. 13236).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Feeds small fishes, crabs, and prawns (Ref. 1602). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Inhabits sand bottoms among coral reefs in 2-23 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 29.4, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00078 (0.00029 - 0.00205), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .