Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; non-migratory; depth range 40 - 850 m (Ref. 13608). Deep-water; 45°N - 40°S, 169°W - 153°W
Eastern Atlantic: single record at 45°41'N, 13°42'W (Ref. 4775); also between 14°N and 6°S. Western Atlantic: in tropical waters north to about 40°N; also between 34°S and 40°S (Ref. 4775). Western Indian Ocean: Agulhas Current (Ref. 4066) and at least between 28°S and 30°S. Eastern Indian Ocean: near Tasmania. Pacific: near Hawaii. Recorded in South China Sea near the Tungsha Islands (Ref. 39633).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 11.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
soft rays: 12 - 15. Total anal organs 8-10; three to 6 small elongate patches of luminous tissue along base of anal fin which originate at the 4th ray; supracaudal gland short, with 2-3 scales, infracaudal gland with 3-5 scales reaching below last or next to last posterior anal organ (Ref. 39633).
High-oceanic species found between 375 and 750 during the day and between 40 and 650 at night (Ref. 4775). Mesopelagic (Ref. 75154). Large individuals are non-migratory (Ref. 4775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.7 - 8.4, mean 6.2 °C (based on 4 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00210 - 0.01040), b=3.14 (2.95 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .