Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; non-migratory; depth range 40 - 850 m (Ref. 13608). Deep-water; 45°N - 40°S, 169°W - 153°W
Eastern Atlantic: single record at 45°41'N, 13°42'W (Ref. 4775); also between 14°N and 6°S. Western Atlantic: in tropical waters north to about 40°N; also between 34°S and 40°S (Ref. 4775). Western Indian Ocean: Agulhas Current (Ref. 4066) and at least between 28°S and 30°S. Eastern Indian Ocean: near Tasmania. Pacific: near Hawaii. Recorded in South China Sea near the Tungsha Islands (Ref. 39633).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 11.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
soft rays: 12 - 15. Total anal organs 8-10; three to 6 small elongate patches of luminous tissue along base of anal fin which originate at the 4th ray; supracaudal gland short, with 2-3 scales, infracaudal gland with 3-5 scales reaching below last or next to last posterior anal organ (Ref. 39633).
High-oceanic species found between 375 and 750 during the day and between 40 and 650 at night (Ref. 4775). Mesopelagic (Ref. 75154). Large individuals are non-migratory (Ref. 4775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.7 - 8.4, mean 6.2 °C (based on 4 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00247 - 0.01279), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .