Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Gonostomatidae
Etymology: Cyclothone: Greek, kyklothen, in circle, around (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 298 - 4938 m (Ref. 58302), usually 400 - 2400 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 64°N - 20°N, 105°E - 130°W
North Pacific: temperate and subtropical, from southern Japan to Baja California, from 21°N and into the Bering Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
soft rays: 17 - 20;
Vertebrae: 31 - 33. Body dark-brown or black; margin of scale pockets especially dark; area immediately anterior to anal origin densely pigmented and not transparent; peritoneum black, ending above area between 3rd and 4th VAV, usually invisible from the outside (Ref. 559). Gill lamellae free and reduced (Ref. 559).
Meso- to bathypelagic (Ref. 58302). Inhabits deep water and is only captured with special equipment. Lipid content is 4.0 % in fresh body weight and wax ester is 58.4 % in total lipid (Ref. 9193). Protandrous hermaphrodite, oviparous with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35800).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.7 - 7.3, mean 2.4 °C (based on 579 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00143 - 0.00924), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .