Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 37 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 34°S, 115°E - 174°W (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands south to Lord Howe Island and east to Howland Island and Samoa. Often misidentified as Epinephelus macrospilos or Epinephelus corallicola.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body pale grey or brownish grey, covered with small brownish black spots with diffuse edges, separated from adjacent spots by spaces equal to or greater than width of the spots; body with black saddle blotch , smaller black saddle blotch on the caudal peduncle; dusky margins of the soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins, with white line along edge; median and pelvic fins with dark spots; dusky pectoral fins with few dark spots basally; body depth contained 2.9-3.3 times in SL; HL 2.2-2.5 times in SL; flat interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, slightly enlarged serrae at angle; maxilla reaches past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on the midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca 13 (Ref. 89707).
Usually found over rocky areas or on coral reefs. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (shrimps and crab) with occasional molluscs or worms (Ref. 89707). Nothing has been published on its biology. Appears to be very rare and therefore of little commercial importance. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.5 °C (based on 268 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00754 - 0.01749), b=3.03 (2.91 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 26.2 [13.9, 58.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.457 [0.255, 0.946] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.1, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.124 [0.081, 0.196] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.9 [21.5, 62.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 208 [61, 722] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.28 [0.81, 1.92] mg/100g (wet weight);