Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 800 m (Ref. 100719), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 32°S, 30°E - 154°E (Ref. 5222)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Kenya to South Africa; Oman, west coast of India, Korea, Japan including Ogasawara Islands, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia. Sometimes misidentified as Epinephelus magniscuttis or Epinephelus heniochus.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 5222)
Found in the continental shelf over soft bottom (Ref. 7300); associated with coral
reefs or rocky bottoms and other inshore environments of tropical seas (Ref. 97263). Nothing has been published on its biology.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00471 - 0.01341), b=2.97 (2.83 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec = 448,584).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.7 [26.4, 141.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.577 [0.278, 1.296] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.207 [0.110, 0.389] g/100g ; Selenium = 75.1 [35.8, 156.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 51 [12, 219] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.04 [0.61, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);